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Srm online examination slot 2019

Srm online examination slot 2019

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British India Academy is proud to be the No. Christmas is here!!! Vai a. Sezioni di questa pagina. In hydrologic terms, an area having a common outlet for its surface runoff also see Drainage Area or Basin, Watershed. A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for a 80, 90, or percent chance of measurable precipitation 0.

See Precipitation Probability PoP. Alert stage or caution stage are used instead of caution stage in some parts of the country. CIG - The height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer. A device using a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud base. An optical ceilometer uses triangulation to determine the height of a spot of light projected onto the base of the cloud; a laser ceilometer determines the height by measuring the time required for a pulse of light to be scattered back from the cloud base. A typical thunderstorm consists of several cells. The term "cell" also is used to describe the radar echo returned by an individual shower or thunderstorm.

Such usage, although common, is technically incorrect. The standard scale used to measure temperature in most areas outside the United States. Generally speaking, the vertical axis of a tropical cyclone, usually defined by the location of minimum wind or minimum pressure. The cyclone center position can vary with altitude. In advisory products, refers to the center position at the surface.

In solar-terrestrial terms, the passage of an Active Region or other feature across the longitude meridian that passes through the apparent center of the solar disk. The average flow in cubic feet per second for any time period is the volume of flow in cfs-days. A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for 30, 40, or 50 percent chance of measurable precipitation 0. When the precipitation is convective in nature, the term scattered is used. In hydrologic terms, also known as Watercourse; an open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically, or continuously contains moving water, or forms a connecting link between two bodies of water.

River, creek, run, branch, anabranch, and tributary are some of the terms used to describe natural channels. Natural channels may be single or braided. Canal and floodway are some of the terms used to describe artificial channels. In hydrologic terms, water, which at any instant, is flowing into the channel system form surface flow, subsurface flow, base flow, and rainfall that has directly fallen onto the channel. In hydrologic terms, an elongated opening in the ice cover caused by a water current. In hydrologic terms, the process of determining progressively timing and shape of the flood wave at successive points along a river.

In mountainous areas or in cities with tall buildings, air may be channeled through constricted passages producing high winds. Santa Ana winds and winds through passes from the cold Alaskan interior to the sea are examples of these winds. Channeled high winds are local in nature but can be extremely strong. These winds generally occur in well-defined areas.

In hydrologic terms, the modification of a natural river channel; may include deepening, widening, or straightening. A computer model used in air pollution investigations that simulates chemical and photochemical reactions of the pollutants during their transport and diffusion. This is a region-specific term used for Foehn Winds in the lee of the Rocky Mountains in the United States; Foehn Winds are warm, dry winds that occur in the lee of high mountain ranges.

It is a fairly common wintertime phenomena in the mountainous west and in parts of Alaska. These winds develop in well-defined areas and can be quite strong. A foehn cloud formation appearing as a bank of altostratus clouds east of the Rocky Mountains, heralding the approach of a chinook. It forms in the rising portion of standing waves on the lee side of the mountains. An observer underneath or east of the cloud sees an arch of clear air between the clouds leading edge and the mountains below.

The cloud appears to converge with the mountains to the north and south due to a perspective effect. CFCs - Manufactured substances used as coolants and computer-chip cleaners. When these products break down they destroy stratospheric ozone, creating the Antarctic Ozone Hole in the Southern Hemisphere spring Northern Hemisphere autumn. While no longer in use, their long lifetime will lead to a very slow removal from the atmosphere.

In solar-terrestrial terms, the layer of the solar atmosphere above the photosphere and beneath the transition region and the corona. In solar-terrestrial terms, flares that are just Chromospheric Events without Centimetric Bursts or Ionospheric Effects. SID Class C flare. The flow, or movement, of a fluid e. A cirriform cloud characterized by thin, white patches, each of which is composed of very small granules or ripples.

These clouds are of high altitude 20,, ft or , m. A cloud of a class characterized by a composition of ice crystals and often by the production of halo phenomena and appearing as a whitish and usually somewhat fibrous veil, often covering the whole sky and sometimes so thin as to be hardly discernible. CI High-level clouds 16, feet or higher , composed of ice crystals and appearing in the form of white, delicate filaments or white or mostly white patches or narrow bands. Cirrus clouds typically have a fibrous or hairlike appearance, and often are semi-transparent. Thunderstorm anvils are a form of cirrus cloud, but most cirrus clouds are not associated with thunderstorms.

The time of morning at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon. At this time, there is enough light for objects to be distiguishable and that outdoor activities can commence. The time at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the evening. At this time objects are distinguishable but there is no longer enough light to perform any outdoor activities. CEM - A message issued by the National Weather Service in coordination with Federal, state or local government to warn the general public of a non-weather related time-critical emergency which threatens life or property, e.

Geographic areas designated by the Clean Air Act where only a small amount or increment of air quality deterioration is permissible. CAT - In aviation, sudden severe turbulence occurring in cloudless regions that causes violent buffeting of aircraft. A thin coating of ice on terrestrial objects, caused by rain that freezes on impact. The ice is relatively transparent, as opposed to rime ice, because of large drop size, rapid accretion of liquid water, or slow dissipation of latent heat of fusion.

With respect to severe thunderstorms, a local region of clearing skies or reduced cloud cover, indicating an intrusion of drier air; often seen as a bright area with higher cloud bases on the west or southwest side of a wall cloud. A clear slot is believed to be a visual indication of a rear flank downdraft. As used in connection with reimbursable National Weather Service NWS fire weather services, a public fire service or wildlands management agency, Federal or non-Federal, which requires and uses NWS fire and forestry meteorological services.

The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years. A non-random change in climate that is measured over several decades or longer. The change may be due to natural or human-induced causes. It is issued by the fifteenth of the month. Mathematical model for quantitatively describing, simulating, and analyzing the interactions between the atmosphere and underlying surface e. A climate outlook issued by the CPC gives probabilities that conditions, averaged over a specified period, will be below-normal, normal, or above-normal. The Center serves the public by assessing and forecasting the impacts of short-term climate variability, emphasizing enhanced risks of weather-related extreme events, for use in mitigating losses and maximizing economic gains.

The system consisting of the atmosphere gases , hydrosphere water , lithosphere solid rocky part of the Earth , and biosphere living that determine the Earths climate. An outlook based upon climatological statistics for a region, abbreviated as CL on seasonal outlook maps. CL indicates that the climate outlook has an equal chance of being above normal, normal, or below normal.

The science that deals with the phenomena of climates or climatic conditions. An instrument that measures angles of inclination; used to measure cloud ceiling heights. A basin draining to some depression or pond within its area, from which water is lost only by evaporation or percolation. A basin without a surface outlet for precipitation falling precipitation. Flooding that occurs on lakes with either no outlet or a relatively small one. Seasonal increases in rainfall cause the lake level to rise faster than it can drain. The water may stay at flood stage for weeks, months, or years. A low pressure area with a distinct center of cyclonic circulation which can be completely encircled by one or more isobars or height contour lines.

The term usually is used to distinguish a low pressure area aloft from a low-pressure trough. Closed lows aloft typically are partially or completely detached from the main westerly current, and thus move relatively slowly see Cutoff Low. CLD A visible aggregate of minute water droplets or ice particles in the atmosphere above the Earths surface. Same as Ceiling; the height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer. Small particles in the air on which water vapor condenses and forms cloud droplets.

An array of clouds whose bases are at approximately the same level. Rows of cumulus or cumulus-type clouds aligned parallel to the low-level flow. Cloud streets sometimes can be seen from the ground, but are seen best on satellite photographs. Radar echoes that interfere with observation of desired signals on the radar display. The process by which water droplets in a cloud collide and come together to form raindrops. Flooding which occurs when water is driven onto land from an adjacent body of water. This generally occurs when there are significant storms, such as tropical and extratropical cyclones.

Includes the area from a line approximating the mean high water along the mainland or island as far out as nautical miles including the bays, harbors and sounds. The marine forecast for areas, including bays, harbors, and sounds, from a line approximating the mean high water mark average height of high water over a year period along the mainland or near shore islands extending out to as much as NM. Minor flooding is possible i. Flooding that will pose a serious threat to life and property is occurring, imminent or highly likely. Flooding with significant impacts is possible. This flooding may impact the immediate oceanfront, gulfs, bays, back bays, sounds, and tidal portions of river mouths and inland tidal waterways.

Lakeshore flooding impacts the immediate lakefront, bays, and the interfaces of lakes and connecting waterways, such as rivers. A radar that utilizes both signal phase and amplitude to determine target characteristics. Downslope flow pulsations that occur at more or less regular intervals as cold air builds up on a peak or plateau, reaches a critical mass, and then cascades down the slopes. A shallow cold air mass which is carried up the slope of a mountain barrier, but with insufficient strength to surmount the barrier.

The cold air, trapped upwind of the barrier alters the effective terrain configuration of the barrier to larger-scale approaching flows. The phenomenon in which a low-level cold air mass is trapped topographically. Often, this cold air is entrenched on the east side of mountainous terrain. Cold Air Damming often implies that the trapped cold air mass is influencing the dynamics of the overlying air mass, e. Effects on the weather may include cold temperatures, freezing precipitation, and extensive cloud cover. A funnel cloud or rarely a small, relatively weak tornado that can develop from a small shower or thunderstorm when the air aloft is unusually cold hence the name.

They are much less violent than other types of tornadoes. A zone separating two air masses, of which the cooler, denser mass is advancing and replacing the warmer. A frontal zone formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front and, being colder than the air ahead of the warm front, slides under the warm front, lifting it aloft. Compare with warm occlusion. A region of relatively cold air, represented on a weather map analysis as a relative minimum in temperature surrounded by closed isotherms. Cold pools aloft represent regions of relatively low stability, while surface-based cold pools are regions of relatively stable air. A generally circular ring of cloud that may be observed on rare occasions surrounding the upper part of a wall cloud.

This term sometimes is used incorrectly as a synonym for wall cloud. The fraction of droplets approaching a surface that actually deposit on that surface. A low pressure storm system that forms in winter in southeastern Colorado or northeastern New Mexico and tracks northeastward across the central plains of the U. In hydrologic terms, ice consisting of columnar shaped grain. The ordinary black ice is usually columnar-grained. Generally referred to as SEAS. Used to describe the combination or interaction of wind waves and swells in which the separate components are not distinguished. This includes the case when swell is negligible or is not considered in describing sea state.

When used, SEAS should be considered as being the same as the significant wave height. A synoptic scale cloud pattern with a characteristic comma-like shape, often seen on satellite photographs associated with large and intense low-pressure systems. A thunderstorm radar echo which has a comma-like shape. It often appears during latter stages in the life cycle of a bow echo. Typically used to refer to mountainous terrain. In general usage, it may also refer to coastal regions and heterogeneous landscapes. An average that is calculated according to specific criteria. For example, one might want a composite for the rainfall at a given location for all years where the temperature was much above average.

A stream discharge hydrograph which includes base flow, or one which corresponds to a net rain storm of duration longer than one unit period. In solar-terrestrial terms, the indicative of solar flare importance. These are common in the most intense hurricanes. They usually mark the end the period of intensification. These hurricanes then maintain quasi-constant intensity or weaken. When the inner eye is completely dissipated, more intensification may occur.

In general, the physical process by which a vapor becomes a liquid or solid; the opposite of evaporation, although on the molecular scale, both processes are always occurring. A funnel-shaped cloud associated with rotation and consisting of condensed water droplets as opposed to smoke, dust, debris, etc. An atmospheric condition that exists when the environmental lapse rate is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate but greater than the moist adiabatic lapse rate. Flow of heat in response to a temperature gradient within an object or between objects that are in physical contact.

In hydrologic terms, the depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate. The volume of the cone will vary with the rate of withdrawal of water. Also called the Cone of Influence. Same as Cone of Depression; in hydrologic terms, the depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate. In hydrologic terms, ground water held under an aquiclude or an aquifuge, called artesian if the pressure is positive. A pattern of wind flow in which air flows inward toward an axis oriented parallel to the general direction of flow.

It is the opposite of difluence. Confluence is not the same as convergence. Winds often accelerate as they enter a confluent zone, resulting in speed divergence which offsets the apparent converging effect of the confluent flow. The act that assigned the responsibility of river and floor forecasting for the benefit of the general welfare of the Nation's people and economy to the Weather Bureau, and subsequently the National Weather Service. With regards to wildfires, pattern of plume dispersion in a neutral atmosphere, in which the plume attains the form of a cone with its vertex at the top of the stack.

Two points on the earths surface, at opposite ends of a geomagnetic field line. In hydrologic terms, storage of water for later release for usual purposes such as municipal water supply, power, or irrigation in contrast with storage capacity used for flood control. In hydrologic terms, ice cover formed by the packing and freezing together of floes, brash ice and other forms of floating ice. Alternate term for Isobaric Chart a weather map representing conditions on a surface of equal atmospheric pressure. For example, a mb chart will display conditions at the level of the atmosphere at which the atmospheric pressure is mb.

In hydrologic terms, the volume of water in a reservoir. Unless otherwise indicated reservoir content is computed on the basis of a level pool and does not include bank storage. A dry air mass originating over a large land area. Contrast with tropical air mass. The zone bordering a continent and extending to a depth, usually around FM, from which there is a steep descent toward greater depth. In solar-terrestrial terms, general term for solar noise lasting for hours and sometimes days.

In hydrologic terms, small monuments securely embedded in the surface of the dam. Any movement of the monument indicates a movement in the dam itself. Movements in the dam are detected by comparing control points location to location of fixed monuments located off the dam using accurate survey techniques. Generally, transport of heat and moisture by the movement of a fluid. In meteorology, the term is used specifically to describe vertical transport of heat and moisture in the atmosphere, especially by updrafts and downdrafts in an unstable atmosphere.

The terms "convection" and "thunderstorms" often are used interchangeably, although thunderstorms are only one form of convection. However, convection is not always made visible by clouds. Convection which occurs without cloud formation is called dry convection, while the visible convection processes referred to above are forms of moist convection. The unstable boundary layer that forms at the surface and grows upward through the day as the ground is heated by the sun and convective currents transfer heat upwards into the atmosphere.

The vertically developed family of clouds are cumulus and cumulonimbus. The height of their bases range from as low as 1, feet to a bit more than 10, feet. Clouds with extensive vertical development are positive indications of unstable air. Strong upward currents in vertically developed clouds can carry high concentrations of supercooled water to high levels where temperatures are quite cold. Upper portions of these clouds may be composed of water and ice. CCL - The level in the atmosphere to which an air parcel, if heated from below, will rise dry adiabatically, without becoming colder than its environment just before the parcel becomes saturated.

CIN or B- - A numerical measure of the strength of "capping," typically used to assess thunderstorm potential. Specifically, it represents the cumulative effect of atmospheric layers the are warmer than the parcel moving vertically along the adiabat. Low level parcel ascent is often inhibited by such stable layers near the surface. If natural processes fail to destabilize the lower levels, an input of energy from forced lift a front, an upper level shortwave, etc. Since CIN is proportional to the amount of kinetic energy that a parcel loses to buoyancy while it is colder than the surrounding environment, it contributes to the downward momentum.

The terms approaching, slight risk, moderate risk, and high risk are used to describe severe thunderstorm potential. Local versions sometimes are prepared by local NWS offices. Convection that covers the sky with clouds, thereby cutting off the sunshine that produces convection. The approximate temperature that the air near the ground must warm to in order for surface-based convection to develop, based on analysis of a sounding. Calculation of the convective temperature involves many assumptions, such that thunderstorms sometimes develop well before or well after the convective temperature is reached or may not develop at all.

However, in some cases the convective temperature is a useful parameter for forecasting the onset of convection. A contraction of a vector field; the opposite of divergence. Convergence in a horizontal wind field indicates that more air is entering a given area than is leaving at that level. To compensate for the resulting "excess," vertical motion may result: Upward forcing from low-level convergence increases the potential for thunderstorm development when other factors, such as instability, are favorable.

Compare with confluence. In hydrologic terms, the loss of water from a conduit due to leakage, seepage, evaporation, or evapo-transpiration. CDD - A form of Degree Day used to estimate energy requirements for air conditioning or refrigeration. An individual or institution who takes precipitation and temperature observations-and in some cases other observations such as river stage, soil temperature, and evaporation-at or near their home, or place of business.

Many observers transmit their reports by touch-tone telephone to an NWS computer, and nearly all observers mail monthly reports to the National Climatic Data Center to be archived and published. By international agreement, the local time at the prime meridian, which passes through Greenwich, England. It is also known a "Z time" or "Zulu Time". Core punching is not a recommended procedure for storm spotting. A fictitious force used to account for the apparent deflection of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth.

The deflection to the right in the Northern Hemisphere is caused by the rotation of the earth. A small-scale convergence effect that can be quite severe. It occurs around steep islands and headlands. In solar-terrestrial terms, a white or colored circle or set of concentric circles of light of small radius seen around a luminous body, especially around the sun or moon. The color varies from blue inside to red outside and the phenomenon is attributed to diffraction of light by thin clouds or mist distinguished from halo. In solar-terrestrial terms, an extended region of the corona, exceptionally low in density and associated with unipolar photospheric regions.

CRN In solar-terrestrial terms, material condensing in the corona and appearing to rain down into the chromosphere as observed at the solar limb above strong sunspots. In solar-terrestrial terms, a general term for short-time-scale changes in the corona, but principally used to describe outward-moving plasma clouds. An output of the mesocyclone detection algorithm indicating a 3-dimensional shear region i.

The group of counties for which a National Weather Service Forecast Office is responsible for issuing warnings. The group of counties for which a National Weather Service Forecast Office is responsible for issuing warnings and weather forecasts. Same as Coupled Model; in the context of climate modeling this usually refers to a numerical model which simulates both atmospheric and oceanic motions and temperatures and which takes into account the effects of each component on the other. In the context of climate modeling this usually refers to a numerical model which simulates both atmospheric and oceanic motions and temperatures and which takes into account the effects of each component on the other.

A small stream of water which serves as the natural drainage course for a drainage basin of nominal, or small size. The term is a relative one as to size, some creeks in the humid section would be called rivers if they occurred in the arid portion. The alternating bands of light and dark rays and shadows seen at the earths surface when the sun shines through clouds. Highest point in a wave. In hydrologic terms, 1 The highest stage or level of a flood wave as it passes a point.

A gage used to obtain a record of flood crests at sites where recording gages are installed. In hydrologic terms, the thickness or width of a dam at the level of the crest top of the dam. The term "thickness" is used for gravity and arch dams and "width" for other types of dams. In hydrologic terms, The depth of water flowing in an open channel or conduit, partially filled, corresponding to one of the recognized critical velocities. In hydrologic terms, a condition of flow where the mean velocity is at one of the critical values; ordinarily at Belangers critical depth and velocity. Another important usage is in reference to the Reynolds critical velocities which define the point at which the flow changes from streamline or nonturbulent to turbulent flow.

CRP - In hydrologic terms, the Probability that the actual precipitation during a rainfall event has exceeded or will exceed the flash flood guidance value. In solar-terrestrial terms, a sudden deviation in the sunlit geomagnetic field H component; see geomagnetic elements associated with large solar flare X-ray emission. In , Palmer developed the index to assess short-term crop water conditions and needs across major crop-producing regions. This index is a useful tool in forecasting short-term drought conditions.

A thermally driven wind that blows during daytime across the axis of a valley toward the heated sidewall. A fire where flames travel from tree to tree at the level of the trees crown or top. Movement of a fire from the understory into the crown of a forest canopy. The science of the physical aspects of snow, ice, hail, and sleet and other forms of water produced by temperatures below Zero degrees Celsius. CFP - In hydrologic terms, a unit expressing rates of discharge.

One cubic foot per second is equal to the discharge through a rectangular cross section, 1 foot wide by 1 foot deep, flowing at an average velocity of 1 foot per second. It is also approximately 7. Descriptive of all clouds with vertical development in the form of rising mounds, domes, or towers. A thunderstorm anvil with visual characteristics resembling cumulus-type clouds rather than the more typical fibrous appearance associated with cirrus. A cumuliform anvil arises from rapid spreading of a thunderstorm updraft, and thus implies a very strong updraft.

See anvil rollover, knuckles, mushroom. CU - detached clouds, generally dense and with sharp outlines, showing vertical development in the form of domes, mounds, or towers. Clouds which develop vertically due to unstable air. Characterized by their cauliflower-like or tower-like appearance of moderately large size. A large, towering cumulus cloud with great vertical development, usually with a cauliflower-like appearance, but lacking the characteristic anvil of a cumulonimbus. A horizontal movement of water. Currents may be classified as tidal and nontidal.

Tidal currents are caused by gravitational interactions between the sun, moon, and earth and are a part of the same general movement of the sea that is manifested in the vertical rise and fall, called TIDE. Tidal currents are periodic with a net velocity of zero over the tidal cycle. Nontidal currents include the permanent currents in the general circulatory systems of the sea as well as temporary currents arising from more pronounced meteorological variability.

In hydrologic terms, device used to measure the water velocity or current in a river. In hydrologic terms, a drain constructed at the upper end of the area to be drained, to intercept surface or ground water flowing toward the protected area from higher ground, and carry it away from the area. Also called an Intercepting Drain. An impervious construction or material which reduces seepage or prevents it.

A closed upper-level low which has become completely displaced cut off from basic westerly current, and moves independently of that current. Cutoff lows may remain nearly stationary for days, or on occasion may move westward opposite to the prevailing flow aloft i. However, not all closed lows are completely removed from the influence of the basic westerlies.

Therefore, the recommended usage of the terms is to reserve the use of "cutoff low" only to those closed lows which clearly are detached completely from the westerlies. A thunderstorm that undergoes cycles of intensification and weakening pulses while maintaining its individuality. Cyclic supercells are capable of producing multiple tornadoes i. CYC - A large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of low atmospheric pressure, counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

Circulation or rotation which is in the same sense as the Earths rotation, i. Nearly all mesocyclones and strong or violent tornadoes exhibit cyclonic rotation, but some smaller vortices, such as gustnadoes, occasionally rotate anticyclonically clockwise. Compare with anticyclonic rotation. In solar-terrestrial terms, a daytime layer of the earth's ionosphere approximately 50 to 90 km in altitude. In hydrologic terms, it is the hydrologic Data Network Analysis Software.

Data Collection Platform In hydrologic terms, an electronic device that connects to a river or rainfall gage that records data from the gage and at pre-determined times transmits that data through a satellite to a remote computer. As the name indicates, this climatological product is issued daily by each National Weather Service office.

Most of the climatological data in this report are presented in a tabular form; however, some narrative statements may also be used in the product. The report is organized so that similar items are grouped together i. In hydrologic terms, the maximum mean daily discharge occuring in a stream during a given flood event. In hydrologic terms, any artificial barrier which impounds or diverts water.

The dam is generally hydrologically significant if it is: Or has an impounding capacity of 50 acre-feet or more and is at least six feet above the natural bed of the stream. In hydrologic terms, catastrophic event characterized by the sudden, rapid, and uncontrolled release of impounded water. In solar-terrestrial terms, dark gaseous ejections visible in H-alpha. A faint, negatively charged channel that travels more or less directly and continuously from cloud to ground.

Same as Civil Dawn; the time of morning at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon. In hydrologic terms, the volume in a reservoir below the lowest controllable level. Occurring over a year period, such as an oscillation whose period is roughly 10 years "Pacific Decadal Oscillation". The latitude that the sun is directly over at a given time.

In hydrologic terms, water that percolates downward through the soil beyond the reach of plant roots. In hydrologic terms, infiltration which reaches the water table. In hydrologic terms, a well whose pumping head is too great to permit use of a suction pump. A decrease in the central pressure of a surface low pressure system. The storm is intensifying. Deformation is a primary factor in frontogenesis evolution of fronts and frontolysis decay of fronts.

In hydrologic terms, a general term for ice which has been squeezed together and forced upwards and downwards in places. Subdivisions are rated ice, ridge ice, hummocked ice, and other similar deformations. In hydrologic terms, the geologic process by means of which various parts of the surface of the earth are worn down and carried away and their general level lowered, by the action of wind and water. A measure that gauges the amount of heating or cooling needed for a building using 65 degrees as a baseline. Electrical, natural gas, power, and heating, and air conditioning industries utilize heating and cooling degree information to calculate their needs.

For more specific definitions and how to calculate degree days, see the definitions for Heating Degree Days and Cooling Degree Days. In hydrologic terms, an alluvial deposit, often in the shape of the Greek letter "delta", which is formed where a stream drops its debris load on entering a body of quieter water. Change in temperature. Delta Ts often are computed operationally over the layer between pressure levels of mb and mb, in order to evaluate the amount of instability in mid-levels of the atmosphere.

Generally, values greater than about 18 indicate sufficient instability for severe thunderstorm development. In hydrologic terms, thin branch-like growth of ice on the water surface. In hydrologic terms, the form of the drainage pattern of a stream and it's tributaries when it follows a treelike shape, with the main trunk, branches, and twigs corresponding to the main stream, tributaries, and subtributaries, respectively, of the stream. For marine products: An advisory for widespread or localized fog reducing visibilities to regionally or locally defined limitations not to exceed 1 nautical mile.

An advisory for widespread or localized smoke reducing visibilities to regionally or locally defined limitations not to exceed 1 nautical mile. In hydrologic terms, a flow of water maintained by gravity through a large body of water, such as a reservoir or lake, and retaining its unmixed identity because of a difference in density. In hydrologic terms, the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the volume which a given quantity of snow would occupy if it were reduced to water, to the volume of the snow.

When a snow sampler is used, it is the ratio expressed as percentage of the scale reading on the sampler to the length of the snow core or sample. In hydrologic terms, the part of the hydrograph extending from the point of termination of the Recession Curve to the subsequent rise or alternation of inflow due to additional water becomming available for stream flow.

A region of low atmospheric pressure that is usually accompanied by low clouds and precipitation. The term is also sometimes used as a reference to a Tropical Depression. In hydrologic terms, the volume of water contained in natural depressions in the land surface, such as puddles. In hydrologic terms, the total runoff from a drainage basin, divided by its area. For convenience in comparing runoff with precipitation, the term is usually expressed in inches of depth during a given period of time over the drainage area or acre-feet per square mile.

Pronounced day-RAY-cho , a widespread and usually fast-moving windstorm associated with convection. Derechos include any family of downburst clusters produced by an extratropical MCS, and can produce damaging straight-line winds over areas hundreds of miles long and more than miles across. A tendency toward more prominent desert conditions in a region. In hydrologic terms, the hypothetical flood used in the sizing of the dam and the associated structures to prevent dam failure by overtopping, especially for the spillway and outlet works. They have no spillway gates or valves and do not store water on a long-term basis. Typical detention times for storm flows are on the order of 24 to 72 hours, but may be as long as 5 to 10 days.

Basins designed for detention of mud and rock debris are periodically excavated to maintain their storage capacity. In hydrologic terms, the volume of water, other than depression storage, existing on the land surface as flowing water which has not yet reached the channel. In hydrologic terms, 1 the heavier mineral debris moved by natural watercourses, usually in bed-load form. Moisture that has condensed on objects near the ground, whose temperatures have fallen below the dewpoint temperature. DWPT - A measure of atmospheric moisture. It is the temperature to which air must be cooled in order to reach saturation assuming air pressure and moisture content are constant.

A higher dew point indicates more moisture present in the air. It is sometimes referred to as Dew Point Temperature, and sometimes written as one word Dewpoint. The difference in degrees between the air temperature and the dew point. A narrow zone mesoscale feature of extremely sharp moisture gradient and little temperature gradient. It separates moist air from dry air. Severe weather can be associated with this front. It is also known as a "dryline" or "dry front".

A process which occurs with the addition or loss of heat. The opposite of adiabatic. Meteorological examples include air parcels warming due to the absorption of infrared radiation or release of latent heat. Similar to Santa Ana winds in southern California. These winds occur below canyons in the East Bay hills Diablo range and in extreme cases can exceed 60 mph. They develop due to high pressure over Nevada and lower pressure along the central California coast.

A diagnostic model produces a wind field over an area by interpolating from actual wind observations. A fall of non-branched snow crystals are branched ice crystals in the form of needles, columns, or plates. Cloud motion that appears to differ relative to other nearby cloud elements, e. Cloud rotation is one example of differential motion, but not all differential motion indicates rotation. For example, horizontal wind shear along a gust front may result in differential cloud motion without the presence of rotation.

In solar-terrestrial terms, the change in solar rotation rate with latitude. Low latitudes rotate at a faster angular rate approx. In hydrologic terms, poorly defined ice edge limiting an area of dispersed ice; usually on the leeward side of an area of floating ice. It is the opposite of confluence. Difluence in an upper level wind field is considered a favorable condition for severe thunderstorm development if other parameters are also favorable.

But difluence is not the same as divergence. In a difluent flow, winds normally decelerate as they move through the region of difluence, resulting in speed convergence which offsets the apparent diverging effect of the difluent flow. In hydrologic terms, the damage done to property, structures, goods, etc. A close approach of a tropical cyclone to a particular location. For locations on the left-hand side of a tropical cyclone's track looking in the direction of motion , a direct hit occurs when the cyclone passes to within a distance equal to the cyclone's radius of maximum wind. For locations on the right-hand side of the track, a direct hit occurs when the cyclone passes to within a distance equal to twice the radius of maximum wind.

Compare indirect hit, strike. In hydrologic terms, the runoff entering stream channels promptly after rainfall or snowmelt. Superposed on base runoff, it forms the bulk of the hydrograph of a flood. The component of solar radiation received by the earth's surface only from the direction of the sun's disk i. The component of wind shear which is due to a change in wind direction with height, e. A veering wind with height in the lower part of the atmosphere is a type of directional shear often considered important for tornado development. In solar-terrestrial terms, the sudden timescale of minutes to hours disappearance of a solar filament prominence.

In hydrologic terms, the rate at which water passes a given point. Discharge is often used interchangeably with streamflow. In hydrologic terms, a curve that expresses the relation between the discharge of a stream or open conduit at a given location and the stage or elevation of the liquid surface at or near that location. A table showing the relation between two mutually dependant quantities or variable over a given range of magnitude. A table showing the relation between the gage height and the discharge of a stream or conduit at a given gaging station. Also called a Rating Table. Equipment that measures and records the size distribution of raindrops.

The visible surface of the sun or any heavenly body projected against the sky. In hydrologic terms, a unit hydrograph of direct runoff modified to show the proportions of the volume of runoff that occur during successive equal units of time. Daily; related to actions which are completed in the course of a calendar day, and which typically recur every calendar day e. Variations in meteorological parameters such as temperature and relative humidity over the course of a day which result from the rotation of the Earth about its axis and the resultant change in incoming and outgoing radiation. The temperature difference between the minimum at night low and the maximum during the day high.

The expansion or spreading out of a vector field; usually said of horizontal winds. It is the opposite of convergence. Divergence at upper levels of the atmosphere enhances upward motion, and hence the potential for thunderstorm development if other factors also are favorable. In hydrologic terms, the taking of water from a stream or other body of water into a canal, pipe, or other conduit. In hydrologic terms, the high ground that forms the boundary of a watershed. A divide is also called a ridge. In the blocked flow region upwind of a mountain barrier, the streamline that separates the blocked flow region near the ground from the streamlines above which go over the barrier.

The height above ground of the dividing streamline, as measured far upwind of a mountain barrier. See dividing streamline. Unit used to measure the abundance of ozone in the atmosphere. One Dobson unit is the equivalent of 2. The regions on either side of the equator where air pressure is low and winds are light. In air pollution modeling, the geographical area over which a simulation is performed. In hydrologic terms, the quantity, or quantity per capita, of water consumed in a municipality or district for domestic uses or purposes during a given period, generally one day.

It is usually taken to include all uses included within the term Municipal Use of Water and quantity wasted, lost, or otherwise unaccounted for. In hydrologic terms, the use of water primarily for household purposes, the watering of livestock, the irrigation of gardens, lawns, shrubbery, etc. Radar that can measure radial velocity, the instantaneous component of motion parallel to the radar beam i. A thermally driven wind directed down a valley's axis, usually occurring during nighttime; part of the along-valley wind system.

A strong downdraft current of air from a cumulonimbus cloud, often associated with intense thunderstorms. Downdrafts may produce damaging winds at the surface. DWNDFT - A small-scale column of air that rapidly sinks toward the ground, usually accompanied by precipitation as in a shower or thunderstorm. A downburst is the result of a strong downdraft.

A thermally driven wind directed down a mountain slope and usually occurring at night; part of the along-slope wind system. In the same direction as a stream or other flow, or toward the direction in which the flow is moving. In hydrologic terms, the slope or face of the dam away from the reservoir water. This slope requires some kind of protection e. A deflection of air downward relative to an object that causes the deflection. The component of radiation directed toward the earth's surface from the sun or the atmosphere, opposite of upwelling radiation.

In hydrologic terms, an area having a common outlet for its surface runoff also see Watershed and Catchment Area. In hydrologic terms, a part of the surface of the earth that is occupied by a drainage system, which consists of a surface stream or a body of impounded surface water together with all tributary surface streams and bodies of impounded surface water. In hydrologic terms, the relative density of natural drainage channels in a given area. It is usually expressed in terms of miles of natural drainage or stream channel per square mile of area, and obtained by dividing the total length of stream channels in the area in miles by the area in square miles.

In hydrologic terms, the boundary line, along a topographic ridge or along a subsurface formation, separating two adjacent drainage basins. A valley or basin from which air drains continuously during nighttime rather than becoming trapped or pooled. In hydrologic terms, a vertical well or borehole, usually downstream of impervious cores, grout curtains or cutoffs, designed to collect and direct seepage through or under a dam to reduce uplift pressure under or within a dam. A line of such wells forms a "drainage curtain". In hydrologic terms, the lowering of the surface elevation of a body of water, the water surface of a well, the water table, or the piezometric surface adjacent to the well, resulting from the withdrawl of water therefrom.

In hydrologic terms, the scooping, or suction of underwater material from a harbor, or waterway. Dredging is one form of channel modification. It is often too expensive to be practical because the dredged material must be disposed of somewhere and the stream will usually fill back up with sediment in a few years. Dredging is usually undertaken only on large rivers to maintain a navigation channel. Drifting snow may occur during or after a snowfall. Drifting snow is usually associated with blowing snow. Precipitation consisting of numerous minute droplets of water less than 0. The distribution of rain drops or cloud droplets of specified sizes. Drought is a deficiency of moisture that results in adverse impacts on people, animals, or vegetation over a sizeable area.

At the end of each month, CPC issues a long-term seasonal drought assessment. These assessments review national drought conditions and indicate potential impacts for various economic sectors, such as agriculture and forestry. In hydrologic terms, computed value which is related to some of the cumulative effects of a prolonged and abnormal moisture deficiency. An index of hydrological drought corresponding to levels below the mean in streams, lakes, and reservoirs. A line of constant potential temperature on a thermodynamic chart.

The rate at which the temperature of a parcel of dry air decreases as the parcel is lifted in the atmosphere. The dry adiabatic lapse rate abbreviated DALR is 5. In hydrologic terms, a crack visible at the surface but not going right through the ice cover, and therefore it is dry. In hydrologic terms, a dry floodproofed building is sealed against floodwaters. All areas below the flood protection level are made watertight.

Walls are coated with waterproofing compounds or plastic sheeting. Openings like doors windows, sewer lines and vents are closed, whether permanently, with removable shields, or with sandbags. The flood protection level should be no more than 2 or 3 feet above the top of the foundation because the buildings walls and floors cannot withstand the pressure of deeper water. A boundary separating moist and dry air masses, and an important factor in severe weather frequency in the Great Plains. It typically lies north-south across the central and southern high Plains states during the spring and early summer, where it separates moist air from the Gulf of Mexico to the east and dry desert air from the southwestern states to the west.

The dry line typically advances eastward during the afternoon and retreats westward at night. However, a strong storm system can sweep the dry line eastward into the Mississippi Valley, or even further east, regardless of the time of day. A typical dry line passage results in a sharp drop in humidity hence the name , clearing skies, and a wind shift from south or southeasterly to west or southwesterly. Blowing dust and rising temperatures also may follow, especially if the dry line passes during the daytime. These changes occur in reverse order when the dry line retreats westward. Severe and sometimes tornadic thunderstorms often develop along a dry line or in the moist air just to the east of it, especially when it begins moving eastward.

A bulge in the dry line, representing the area where dry air is advancing most strongly at lower levels. Severe weather potential is increased near and ahead of a dry line bulge. A microburst with little or no precipitation reaching the ground; most common in semi-arid regions. They may or may not produce lightning. Dry microbursts may develop in an otherwise fair-weather pattern; visible signs may include a cumulus cloud or small Cb with a high base and high-level virga, or perhaps only an orphan anvil from a dying rain shower. At the ground, the only visible sign might be a dust plume or a ring of blowing dust beneath a local area of virga. A dry punch at the surface results in a dry line bulge.

A dry punch aloft above an area of moist air at low levels often increases the potential for severe weather. A zone of dry and relatively cloud-free air which wraps east- or northeastward into the southern and eastern parts of a synoptic scale or mesoscale low pressure system. A dry slot generally is seen best on satellite photographs. Generally a high-based thunderstorm when lightning is observed, but little if any precipitation reaches the ground.

Most of the rain produced by the thunderstorm evaporates into relatively dry air beneath the storm cell. May also be referred to as "dry lightning". This is also referred to as baseflow, or ground water flow. An adiabatic process in a hypothetical atmosphere in which no moisture is present. An adiabatic process in which no condensation of its water vapor occurs and no liquid water is present. A geomagnetic index describing variations in the equatorial ringcurrent. In hydrologic terms, a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time during which specified units of items e.

It is the integral of the frequency diagram. In hydrologic terms, The time from freeze-up to break-up of an ice cover. Same as Civil Dusk; the time at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the evening. A small, rapidly rotating wind that is made visible by the dust, dirt or debris it picks up. Also called a whirlwind, it develops best on clear, dry, hot afternoons. A non-rotating "cloud" of dust raised by straight-line winds. Often seen in a microburst or behind a gust front. A severe weather condition characterized by strong winds and dust-filled air over an extensive area.

In hydrologic terms, pressure due to a moving ice cover or drifting ice.

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